Shikakeology: Designing Triggers for Behavior Change

AAAI 2013 Spring Symposium Series
March 25-27, 2013 at Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Organizers: Naohiro Matsumura (Osaka University), Renate Fruchter (Stanford University)

Shikakeology Symposium top page


History Building (200), Room 305, third level

PROGRAM (Last updated March 22, 2013)

March 25 (Mon), 2013

Time Title Author(s)
9:00 - 9:30 Introduction Naohiro Matsumura (Osaka University), Renate Fruchter (Stanford University)
9:30 - 10:00 Shikake as an Embodied Trigger for Behavior Change Naohiro Matsumura (Osaka University)
A shikake is an embodied trigger for behavior change to solve social or personal issues. In this paper, we give a general statement regarding the concept of Shikakeology as the science of shikake. The mechanism behind a shikake covers a wide range of physical and psychological triggers. From a shikake point of view, physical triggers are used to ignite psychological triggers, and psychological triggers work as a driving force for changing behavior. We will describe four simple shikake cases to explain the concept of shikake as well as the mechanisms of triggers. We choose to use case studies to make readers understand the mechanism of shikake as a starting point. We also present the idea of a Shikakeology ecosystem, which is a feedback loop between citizen science, academia, and education.
10:00 - 10:30 A Journey from Island of Knowledge to Mutual Understanding Renate Fruchter (Stanford University), Leonard Medlock (Stanford University)
What are the most important elements to create mutual understanding and make collaborative decisions in creative business meetings? We addressed this question as a transformative journey from island of knowledge to mutual understanding in the context of collaborative decision making in creative global business meetings. The paper will present:
1. a mutual understanding metric (MUM) and method for self assessment and 360 team assessment that define different MUM stages in the journey from island of knowledge to mutual understanding.
2. an engagement Matrix of Choices (eMOC) prototype to assist cross-disciplinary, global teams to make explicit choices with an understanding of the level of collaboration and engagement they can achieve and the respective enablers and hindrances.
10:30 - 11:00 Break
11:00 - 12:30
Virtual Reality, Embodied Experiences, and Environmental Behavior Change Jeremy Bailenson (Stanford University)
In this talk, I will discuss a line of research that leverages embodied experiences--immersive, multi-sensory, perceptually rich forays into virtual worlds. Specifically I will review research designed to viscerally connect the causes and effects of environmental actions. By putting people in simulations that highlight their impact on the environment, we have created a unique tool to change decisions regarding energy and resource use. For example, forcing those who use non-recycled paper to cut down virtual trees results in less paper use subsequently in the physical world. We discuss theoretical explanations for this work as well as a number of successful applications in other environmental domains.
12:30 - 14:00 Lunch
14:00 - 14:30 Shikake Trigger Categories Naohiro Matsumura (Osaka University), Renate Fruchter (Stanford University)
A shikake is a physical and/or psychological trigger for behavior change. In this paper, we present our preliminary consideration on the triggers that best describe shikake specifications. After reviewing previous studies on both physical and psychological triggers for behavior change, we carefully construct shikake trigger categories for systematically describing shikake triggers. On the basis of these categories, we annotate categories for 120 shikake cases. We show the statistics of 19 categories as well as patterns of triggers frequently used together to explore rules of thumb.
14:30 - 15:00 Shikakeology and Marketing Hikaru Yamamoto (Seikei University)
The aim of this paper is to provide a deeper understanding of Shikake through the lens of marketing. “The aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous” is a famous quote by Peter Drucker. Its key message is that marketing is not an effort to control or force consumers to purchase products or services, but an activity to create a situation where consumers engage in consumer behavior spontaneously. The core essence of Shikakeology is a spontaneous behavior change, and it is fair to assume that marketing and Shikakeology share a fundamental philosophy. This paper defines the key concepts in the intersection of marketing and Shikakeology and attempts to classify Shikakes in the field of marketing in accordance with participants’ motivation and consciousness. Different types of consumer participation are described in case studies. Finally, attempts are made to reveal the key to success of a Shikake in the field of marketing and discuss future research opportunities.
15:00 - 15:30 The Feasibility of Using Digital Games as Learning Tools to Promote Awareness on a Range of Water Issues Sarah Chen Lin (National Taiwan University), Meng-Han Tsai (National Taiwan University), Yu-Lien Chang (National Taiwan University), Shih-Chung Kang (National Taiwan University)
The ongoing project consists of developing digital games for high school students that touch upon a wide range of water issues, which has gained attention internationally since the 1970s. The water issues include but are not limited to water security, water footprint, the impact of climate change on water resources, water management and city planning, and engineering and environmental approaches to flooding. The project aims to not only instill environmental awareness but also to validate the efficiency of these games as potential educational tools within Taiwan. To further magnify the trigger, bilingual modules will be produced to enrich the content in the games and made available as paper and digital booklets.
Traditional learning methods consist of information being fed through textbooks, guided by an educator. This project follows an inverted learning process whereby the students’ attention are captured first by emotionally engaging them through playing the games. The students will then take part in a discussion, where they may ask questions that might have arisen whilst playing the games. Last but not least, the modules corresponding each game will be introduced to clarify the questions previously discussed.
15:30 - 16:00 Break
16:00 - 17:30
Possibilities of Tele-operated Androids Hiroshi Ishiguro (Osaka University)
Android is not fiction anymore. The tele-operated androids developed in Osaka University and ATR are working in several real situations. Especially, Geminoid that is a copy of myself is giving lectures in conference instead of me. This talk introduces a series of androids and discusses on the philosophical questions.
(Note: Prof. Ishiguro's keynote presentation will be held via Skype.)
17:30 - 18:00 Break
18:00 - 19:00 Reception

March 26 (Tus), 2013

Time Title Author(s)
9:00 - 9:30 Designing Preudo-Haptic Feedback Mechanisms for Decision Making Tasks Yasuhiro Yamamoto (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Kumiyo Nakakoji (Software Research Associates Inc.)
This paper describes our approach that uses pseudo-haptic feedback as a way to effectively communicate weight and stiffness while interacting with objects, and discusses how such interactivity would change the course of decision making processes of a user.
9:30 - 10:00 Sleeping with Technology -- Designing for Personal Health Christel De Maeyer (Vrije Universiteit Brussel), An Jacobs (Vrije Universiteit Brussel)
Wearable smart devices are coming more and more into our lives. The quantified self-movement is becoming mature and could lead to a new way of looking at personal health. We might be on the verge of a new form of preventive healthcare, based on in depth insights, facts and figures of our existing behavior and attitudes, and act on if necessary. This could completely change the way we look at our health. This paper gives an overview of the different aspects of self-monitoring. We especially want to learn about the awareness these devices create to reach the goals that will be set by participants in this research.
10:00 - 10:30 Leveraging Persuasive Feedback Mechanism for Problem Solving Yi-Ching Huang (National Taiwan University), Bo-Lung Tsai (National Taiwan University), Chun-I Wang (National Taiwan University), Shih-Yuan Yu (National Taiwan University), Che-Wei Liang (National Taiwan University), Jane Yung-jen Hsu (National Taiwan University), Ted Selker (Carnegie Mellon University - Silicon Valley)
There are many problems around us need to be solved by human agents. It is very challenging to persuade peo- ple to change behavior implicitly, especially for solving public problems. We leverage persuasive mechanism for increasing incentives to change human behavior in a problem solving framework. By linking feedback to the actions, we’ve been able to increase the incentives to trigger behavior change. We deploy two persuasive feedback system in a building to support energy-saving scenario. By integrating sound feedback to window closing behavior to make people aware of the energy problem in the public space.
10:30 - 11:00 Break
11:00 - 11:30 The Multiple Me: Triggers for Presence and Attention Renate Fruchter (Stanford University), Michael Seaman (Stanford University)
“Nothing can replace collocated face-to-face interaction.” This is the perception that we all have. Nevertheless, current disruptive drivers such as globalization, mobility, collaboration, interactivity, fusion of physical and virtual worlds create new interaction situations for knowledge workers engaged in geographically distributed project work. This paper explores new opportunities and challenges offered by mixed media mixed reality and types of embodiments people choose during distributed communicative events. We explore the space covered by physical face-to-face presence, digital video conference presence, robotic presence, and virtual avatar presence.
11:30 - 12:00 Might Avatar-Mediated Interactions Rehabilitate People Suffering from Aphasia? Ulla Konnerup (Aalborg University)
This paper presents, that 3D immersive virtual worlds (IVW) offers approaches to provide new contexts in which identity can undergo renegotiation. It argues that involving a person in informal and (non)verbal activities in an avatar-­mediated environment might promote cognitive, communicative functions and re-­creation of self. The learning situation changes from a traditional teacher-student situation to social interactions with fellow sufferers, teachers and social others interacting in a meaningful adult environment. In addition to the textual and pictorial representation using smiley emoticons and avatars makes it possible to use different registers of movement and emotion expressions. They can wave, dance, fight, and kiss. Additional 3D IVW offers the use of multiple modalities and sensory stimuli at once. The social interactions trigger a more spontaneous behavior where the people are not necessarily stuck in their role as disabled and incompetent. They might even weave the formal learning sessions into their more informal social life on the Internet connecting with friends and creating social networks.
12:00 - 12:30 Enhancing Layers of Care House with Assistive Technology for Distributed Caregiving Taro Sugihara (Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), Tsutomu Fujinami (Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology), Rachel Jones (Instrata Limited), Kozo Kadowaki (Meiji University), Masaya Ando (Chiba Institute of Technology)
Care homes for persons with dementia are being designed so that caregivers can easily observe and therefore respond to the needs of people with dementia. However, the layout of care homes can then become overly restrictive for its residents, for example, by not supporting intermediate spaces where people can come across one another and start a conversation. We report a case study where a video monitoring system was deployed into a purpose-built care home to help caregivers to observe activities in the blind spots pertaining to the layout. We had carried out a study prior to and subsequent to the deployment of video monitoring in order to understand its impact. We found that both the caregivers and the residents benefitted from video monitoring, provided it is deployed sensitively. Furthermore, the deployment of video monitoring enables the design of more beneficial physical layouts. The deployment of video monitoring goes along with the physical layout of care homes.
12:30 - 14:00 Lunch
14:00 - 14:30 Study on Landscape Ostranenie from the Perspective of Persons Exposed to “Sikake” Chikahiro Hanamura (Osaka Prefecture University)
We have interpreted a landscape as something that is built on the relationship between a person’s “self” and an environment around the person. Then, we have adopted ostranenie to the field of landscape study and defined it as phenomenon in which the relationship is broken and revitalized with a certain catalyst and a new landscape is produced in person’s mind based on the revitalized relationship. Our study aimed to analyze our installation works from the three perspectives: 1) a person, 2) an environment, both of which were exposed to design tools, and 3) relationship between a person and an environment, and to consider design tools in relation with landscape ostranenie. From the analysis of three cases, it was found that a landscape can be ostranenized if there is design for a person, an environment, and/or the relationship between a person and an environment. From what has commonly been observed in the three cases, we could come to the conclusion that if design is made so that the relationship between a person and an environment can be destroyed and revitalized at the same time, landscape ostranenie may occur without design for a person or an environment.
14:30 - 15:00 Designing a "Shikake" to Revitalize Local Community: A Case Study of Miyakejima University Project Fumitoshi Kato (Keio University)
Over the past few years, we have been exploring the use of camera phones and other mobile media technologies for qualitative research methods, with a particular focus on a participatory mode of learning. Based on a “capacity-focused” approach (e.g., Kretzmann and McKnight, 1993), this paper proposes a conceptual framework to identify various “local resources,” and to convert them into a set of “local assets.” To anchor my discussion, I will refer to an on-going research project in Miyakejima, Tokyo. Miyakejima is an island (administered by the Tokyo Metropolitan government), located at 180 km south of Tokyo, well known by eruptions of its main volcano. The island was completely evacuated after the eruption in September 2000, until the residents were allowed to return to the island in 2005. Due to the absence of the residents for nearly five years, and because of the damages from the eruption, the island is seeking the approaches to understand the potential capabilities of the local community for its recovery.
15:00 - 15:30 Pattern Language and Storytelling: A Methodology of Describing Embodied Experience and Encouraging Others’ Learning Masaki Suwa (Keio University), Fumitoshi Kato (Keio University)
What kind of embodied act is it to see the world, touch it, and learn from that experience? How should one externalize one’s embodied experience and communicate with others to encourage them to learn? The present research is a study to address these issues. The example problem treated here is an experience of walking in a town and learning from it.
15:30 - 16:00 Break
16:00 - 16:30 A Logic-Based Methodology for the Formalization of Shikake Principles and Examples Daniela Inclezan (Texas Tech University)
Shikake is a design approach that proposes solving problems by inducing spontaneous behavior, rather than by relying on the use of extensive resources or expertise. This paper contributes to the study of Shikake principles and examples by describing a methodology for their formalization in the declarative, logic-based language of Answer Set Prolog (ASP). Modeling qualitative theories and principles such as Shikake in the precise language of ASP can play a significant role in indicating possible areas for their future refinement and improvement, as shown here. Our formalization is used in creating a system, SHASP, that can automatically determine if a design is a Shikake or not, as illustrated by two examples and one counterexample.
16:30 - 17:00 Shikake as Affordance and Curation in Chance Discovery Akinori Abe (Chiba University)
According to Matsumura's definition(Matsumura 2012), shikake is a trigger to start action or to change person's mind and behaviour. As a result of the action, all or part of problem will be solved. It sometimes is not the person's will. Thus as shikakeology, such operation should be conducted implicitly. Matsumura continues that shikake should be properly designed. That is, the relationship between a problem to solve and a trigger to action should be properly designed. In addition, Matsumura uses a keyword "affordance" to explain such trigger. Actually Matsumura distinguish psychological design and material design, but I think it can be discussed together.
17:00 - 17:30 The Clock Ticking Changes Our Performance Shoko Yamane (Kinki University), Naohiro Matsumura (Osaka University)
We examined influence of a clock ticking on task performance using a laboratory experiment. We determined performance at various clock speeds using a trick clock that allowed us to control the speed of the ticking. We found that the subjects’ performances were influenced by the speed at which the clock ticked, and people performed more slowly with a slow clock. We demonstrated that common environmental stimuli we encounter in life, such as the ticking of a clock, have a significant effect on human behavior.
17:30 - 18:00 Break
18:00 - 19:00 Plenary Session

March 27 (Wed), 2013

Time Title Author(s)
9:00 - 9:30 Boiled Pumpkin as Nudge: Evidence from a University Cafeteria Shunichiro Oka (Osaka University), Shoko Yamane (Kinki University), Naohiro Matsumura (Osaka University)
This study aims to improve the dietary habits of university students by planting an easy choice.First, we captured the dietary habits of university students by analyzing their purchasing behavior with the data from their meal cards (a prepaid food voucher). As a result of analysis, we found that the dietary habits of meal card users are unbalanced and have many areas for improvement. we also found that the students aimed to spend the full daily allowance on their meal cards: the average value of the daily spending amount divided by the upper limit is 0.998. Building on this tendency, we conducted an experiment in which boiled pumpkin was placed on the counter with the rice bowl dishes in the university cafeteria. We aimed to offer this small "Shikake," boiled pumpkin, as an alternative to a large portion of rice to improve the students' diet. Our experiment showed that the dietary behaviors of students could be improved easily by a simple Shikake.
9:30 - 10:00 The Efficient Method for Creating Ideas; Innovators Marketplace as Role-based Game Teruaki Hayashi (The University of Tokyo), Yukio Ohsawa (The University of Tokyo)
Innovation does not mean only creating the new product or services. It is necessary to work out the strategy to lead innovations. Innovators Market Game is a method for creating new ideas by combining existent ideas. In this study, we propose the new way of creating ideas; Role-based Innovators Market Game. In the game, players take part in the role selected from the real world. For example, journalists, government, doctors and so on. Players create the ideas based on their own roles through the communications with other players. Considering the relations among other roles, players think of ideas strategically. Generally, creating new ideas is highly hard work. By introducing the factor of game, players can create ideas efficiently. The strict rules, acting roles and communication make players more creative and imaginative. Players can discover and solve the practical problems, and improve their creative and imaginative skills through this activity.
10:00 - 10:45
Long Presentation
Experience, Engagement, and Shikake Jari Takatalo (University of Helsinki), Dave Miller (Stanford University), Jukka Häkkinen (University of Helsinki)
Shikake provides an interesting way to trigger behavior change in various contexts. However, the way a Shikake triggers behavior is a complex process. We may become interested in a Shikake because it unambiguously supports some of our abilities, it is fun, or just by following other people’s behavior when they are interacting with it. Similarly, the outcomes of the interaction can greatly vary from sustainable learning to vanishing curiosity. Nonetheless, each time we interact with a Shikake, we experience the world around us. Consequently, the quality of the mental effort and the quantity of the behavioral effort the Shikake triggers determines our level of engagement in an event. Here we present a psychological design framework that connects Shikake triggers, experience, and behaviors in an engagement space. The contextual focus is on education and learning. An experiential level inspection reveals both conscious and unconscious perceptual pathways, which are especially crucial to understand when learning behaviors are triggered. The framework provides heuristics of what to consider when studying, evaluating, and designing engagement in human-environment interaction processes from a trigger to the resulting experience and behavior.
10:45 - 11:15 Break
11:15 - 12:00
Long Presentation
Peace Innovation Mark Nelson (Stanford University)
The Peace Innovation project started with Peace Dot. The goal of Peace Dot is simple: persuade any individual, organization or corporation with a website to create a peace subdomain that spotlights what they are doing to help promote peace in the world. So far, over 50 sites ranging from Facebook to the Dalai Lama Foundation, Khan Academy to CouchSurfing, in multiple languages have created peace dot pages around the world.
12:00 - 12:30 Shikake as Initiators of Behavior and Elaborative Cognitive Processes: Implications for Design David Miller (Stanford University)
Objects in the environment inevitably influence behavior, and an entire class of products, services, and systems exist specifically to influence behavior. Matsumura (2012) adopted the Japanese term Shikake to describe persuasive objects which, to use Fogg's (2009) terminology, act as 'embodied triggers.' Under that definition, Shikake can act as nudges to initiate simple behaviors, or as prompts to initiate problem solving processes. Conceiving of Shikake in "dual-process" terms (O'Keefe, 2008), engaging different cognitive processing pathways dependent on the nature of the Shikake, provides a way to design Shikake to optimize persuasion effectiveness depending on the context and desired effects.
12:30 - 12:35 Closing